11th century, 15th century, 8th century, 8th or 9th century, Akshobhya, Crowned Buddha Shakyamuni, Female Attendant, Gilgit, Himalayas, Kashmir, Kashmir or northern Pakistan, Maryul district, Power of Faith, Shatasahasrika Prajnaparamita, Thangka of Four-Armed Mahakala, Tholing Monastery, Western Tibet
A Pair of Female Attendants. Kashmir; 8th century. Ivory. Cleveland Museum of Art, John L. Severance Fund, 1972.35.1 and 1972.35.2. Courtesy of the Block Museum of Art
EVANSTON, ILL.– What is the impact when one culture acquires the sacred objects of another? The Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art at Northwestern University is putting that question under the microscope this winter with the exhibition “Collecting Paradise: Buddhist Art of Kashmir and Its Legacies.”
Free and open to the public from Jan. 13 through April 19, 2015, this Main Gallery exhibition takes a penetrating look at how Buddhist art from Kashmir and the Western Himalayas has traveled across centuries and borders — first within the region and later to the U.S. and Europe — raising questions about cultural impact and the varying motivations behind modes of collecting.
“Collecting Paradise” features Buddhist objects, including manuscripts, paintings, and sculptures in ivory, metal and wood, dating from the 7th to 17th centuries. With 44 objects, the exhibition presents an original and innovative look at art from the region of Kashmir and the Western Himalayas, as well as how it has been “collected” over time.
The exhibition was curated by a leading scholar in the field, Robert Linrothe, associate professor of art history in Northwestern’s Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, with the support of Christian Luczanits, the David L. Snellgrove Senior Lecturer in Tibetan and Buddhist Art at The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London.
Akshobhya, Kashmir region, probably Gilgit, 8th or 9th century, copper alloy with copper, silver, and niello inlays and traces of polychromy, Approx. 11.5 x 6 x 4 in., Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Arthur and Margaret Glasgow Fund, 86.120. Courtesy of the Block Museum of Art
“‘Collecting Paradise’ is the most ambitious exhibition in the Block’s history, and we are very grateful to the National Endowment for the Arts for recognizing its significance,” said Lisa Corrin, the Ellen Philips Katz Director of the Block Museum. “As part of our new global initiative, this exhibition brings together works of Asian art that are true masterpieces — among the most important of their kind in the U.S.”
“Professor Linrothe is one of the few experts in art of this region teaching in the U.S. today. He has spent decades traveling to remote locations to study historic sites and form relationships with local experts. This direct experience of the art of Kashmir and the Western Himalayas ‘in situ’ has contributed to his innovative and thought-provoking thesis on the migration of culture,” Corrin added.
A companion exhibition, “Collecting Culture: Himalaya through the Lens,” Jan. 13 through April 12, in the Alsdorf Gallery, further examines the impact of centuries of collecting in the region. Co-curated by Kathleen Bickford Berzock, the Block’s associate director of curatorial affairs, and Robert Linrothe, “Collecting Culture” looks critically at U.S. and European engagement in the Himalayas beginning in the mid-19th century, through lenses including photography, cartography, natural science and ethnography. It reflects on the ways Westerners have perceived, defined and acquired the Himalayas, raising questions about what is gained and what is lost when objects are removed from their intended cultural context.
“Collecting Culture” presents the expeditions of four individuals from the late 1920s through the 1940s — Italian scholar Giuseppe Tucci; American zoologist Walter Koelz, who worked with Thakur Rup Chand, his Indian partner and guide; and Northwestern University professor William McGovern.
Power of Faith, Folio from a Shatasahasrika Prajnaparamita (The Perfection of Wisdom in 100,000 Verses) Western Tibet, Maryul district, Tholing Monastery, Himalayas. 11th century; painting on paper; watercolor, ink, opaque watercolor and gold on paper. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, from the Nasli and Alice Heeramaneck Collection, purchased with funds provided by the Jane and Justin Dart Foundation. Courtesy of the Block Museum of Art
Eleven of Tucci’s, Koelz’s and Rup Chand’s acquisitions are included in “Collecting Paradise.” This enables museum visitors to consider the motivations and actions of these individuals, as well as contemplate the impact of transferring consecrated objects from religious shrines to museums, where they are presented for their aesthetic value.
“With these exhibitions, we are raising questions that a university museum is uniquely capable of addressing — specifically, the complex issues surrounding the origins of an object and how its meaning can shift with context. Through a dynamic schedule of free public programs this winter, we will present audiences with unique opportunities to consider and examine these questions,” Corrin said.
“Collecting Paradise” brings together works from The Art Institute of Chicago, the Asia Society (New York City), the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, the Rubin Museum of Art (New York City), the Saint Louis Art Museum, the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropological Archaeology, the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, and four private collections.
The exhibition is accompanied by an illustrated, color catalogue that shares new research and perspectives that have developed during the formation of the exhibition. After its premiere at the Block, “Collecting Paradise” will travel to the Rubin Museum of Art, the foremost museum of Himalayan art in the U.S.
Crowned Buddha Shakyamuni, Kashmir or northern Pakistan; 8th century. Brass with inlays of copper, silver, and zinc. Asia Society, Mr. and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3rd. Collection of Asian Art. Courtesy of the Block Museum of Art
THE INTRICATE HISTORY OF ART AND CULTURE IN KASHMIR AND THE WESTERN HIMALAYAS
From the 7th to 11th centuries, Kashmir — a lush valley connected to the Silk Road — was a wealthy center of transcultural trade, culture and religion. Beginning in the 10th century, Buddhists in the Western Himalayas traveled to Kashmir to acquire, preserve and emulate its sophisticated art.
Kashmiri artists also accepted invitations to travel to the Western Himalayas during this period to work with and teach local artists. The distinctive workmanship of the “Kashmiri style” became integrated into the identity of Tibetan Buddhism in this period and experienced a revival in the Western Himalayas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Centuries later, beginning in the 1900s, artworks from Kashmir and the Western Himalayas became prized acquisitions for collections in the U.S. and Europe. Western explorers, scholars and travelers removed these works — often surreptitiously — from their places of origin. Today many of these works reside in public and private collections.
Thangka of Four-Armed Mahakala, Western Tibet, Tholing Monastery (?); 15th century. Pigments on cotton; Solomon Family Collection. Courtesy of the Block Museum of Art