On the origin of the vase, academia there is some controversy unanimous, some scholars believe vase originated in the Tang Dynasty, Shanghai Museum and the Beijing Palace Museum has a shape close to the vase but the body is relatively shorter white glaze bottle, another Xi’an Beilin Museum Collection of a stone coffin in the inner wall of the Tang Shou-line characterization, and some scholars have pointed out that one of the maid’s hands holding long bottle, its shape and later called the Song Yuansheng wine vase is very similar (Figure 1). (DU, « On the Origin and Origin vase (Part 2) » collectors « J], 2003 (02), 18) Other scholars believe that the northern Khitan Liao migration to adapt to life in the delivery of wine create a round mouth, short-necked, long belly, rough up fine, like a chicken porcelain vase should be the prototype. (DU, « On the Origin and Origin vase (Part) » Collection community « J], 2003 (02), 19 pages).
Figure a, the inner wall of the Tang Shou-line characterization of stone coffin (Xi’an Beilin Museum)
Although the origin of academia vase not yet agreed, but in the Song Dynasty vase wine culture flourished due to give a mature development and wide application it is an indisputable fact. Shanghai Museum is in possession of two pieces of white, black Cizhou line Song opening flower vase in the form mentioned there were « clear Put Wine » and « drunk fragrant universal » words, a clear description of the vase at the time of use.
Mei Sheng wine bottle as in the Song of the literature for this purpose also have a clear record:
[Song] Zhao Tian Temple (or title Chiu essays), « Hou mackerel recorded » Volume: « Tao person for wine by Yan Jin has 安人盛 to jug wine, which made a small neck, collar, Slim. by a bucket that can hold wine Where fed human sacrifice and wine, home book says: wine once, or two by five by Yan He territory people travel so the state does not reach its meaning, the smell of the Pentateuch to, belted welcome at the door, I realized that five bottles of wine for five by Yan. «
[Song] Yuan Wen « urn lattice window free assessment » Volume: « People today hold large bottles of wine, called by the Beijing bottle, but by the capital of the ‘Virgin’ word, which means this bottle from the capital, Beijing also mistakenly word when used. classics of the ‘after’, Puan people with a small jug neck, collar, repair abdomen by a bucket that can hold wine person, it is called by. who is known by the bottle, when using this by word. «
[Song] Zhao Yan Wei, « says Lu Man notes, » Volume: « People today call for wine bottles to persuade Beijing, ⋯⋯ cover self Jinan language, legend and now. »
Figure II, Song Cizhou scratching money pattern vase (Tao Yun | autumn patted goods) Photo Paragon International Auctioneers
Although the « vase » Song of the concept has not yet appeared in the literature, but in the literature describing the « Beijing bottle », « wine by », « wine in Beijing, » the shapes can be identified said today they undoubtedly vase. Su Bai in « Pak Song Dynasty Tombs, » a book that White Sands No. Song Period (ID: Ying Tung No. 119) mural depicted three tall bottle is stated in the literature Song « by the bottle » and further stated : « This type of high-bottle, was to the north of Henan Province in northern China, including Henan, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei and the northeast, Inner Mongolia area popular folk artifacts, porcelain vase are known …… » « vase » Blair said that until the late Qing Dynasty, « Tao Ya, » a book really appeared in the early Republican Zhiheng Xu, « Zhai said drainage porcelain » wrote: « vase, mouth small and short term, shoulder pole Kuanbo, to the neck slightly narrower fold, to foot the micro abundance. The only small caliber plum commensurate with thin bone, named vase. «
Figure III, Song Yaozhou money pattern carved vase, (Tao Yun | autumn patted goods). Photo Paragon International Auctioneers
Wine in use determines the Song Dynasty vase in the shape are different from other objects: small mouth, short neck, shoulder Feng, repair abdomen, narrow shin conducive wine costumes, handling, and not conducive to the volatile wine. Its slender bottle, move to the center of gravity of the whole rounded shoulders, abdomen following closing, contour lines song with straight, like an elegant and dignified girl. 宋人崇 yet natural aesthetic concepts in the vase shape was the perfect manifestation, simple, sleek, restrained and forceful virile like when you pull the embryo contour shaping the potters of human intervention to a minimum, so that in the runner and between the potter’s hands naturally forming, can be described as natural. Since the Song Dynasty vase in various kilns are fired, plus porcelain kilns north-south differences in conditions, vase shape in different parts of the kiln system showing a different style. This style is mainly reflected in the scale and diversity of the body of the curve shape vase of two ways. Scale is mainly determined by the high aspect ratio of the body of Calvary parts of the north-south line kiln vase comparison, North vase generally high, slender bottle, and the larger the difference in height between the different vase, like this auction Cizhou of a vase (Figure 2) height of 35 cm, while the other parts of northern kilns with Yaozhou vase (Figure 3), but only 10 centimeters.
Figure IV, Song Su glaze vase Hutian (Tao Yun | autumn patted goods). Photo Paragon International Auctioneers
t is worth mentioning that the North vase height generally around 30 cm, as this is less than 20 cm high vase vase throughout the north which are relatively rare. In contrast the South vase is generally small, highly insignificant, such as the Southern Song Dynasty, Jingdezhen shadow of a plum bottle (Figure 4) and another Jizhou kiln vase (Figure 5) highly similar, both at 20 cm about.
The body of the curve shape is one of the key decisions vase shape, mouth vase as a visual point of introduction there are a lot of morphological changes, as closely linked to the neck and the mouth portion integrally formed, so it is often casually section and change exhibit morphological differences more. Song Mei style bottle neck there are « short beam neck trapezoid small mouth », « columnar long neck out along the small mouth (Figure 5 and Figure 6) » and « beam neck oblique trapezoidal mouth (Figure 2). »
Figure V, Song Jizhou Kiln paper-cut flower vase leak (Tao Yun | autumn patted goods). Photo Paragon International Auctioneers
Shoulder line of the arc as the Song Dynasty vase curvaceous determinants also has a variety of types such as arc-shoulder, off shoulder square, round off the shoulder, where the shoulder up to the type of arc, the election of a few pieces of vase also belonging to the shoulder arc shape. The curvature of the curve depends on the shoulder by way stretch neck connected arc curve shoulder can be divided into flat out, ramp up, throws these types of stretch mode. Flat out refers to the connection point of the curve by the neck straight way to compare and then gradually extending laterally over the abdomen, forming a wide flat shoulder posture, center of gravity on the side, such as picking flowers Jizhou kiln Black Glaze phoenix bottle (Figure 5) giving a shoulder shrug, a sense of abdominal stout honest. Ramp means extending from the neck downwards curve connecting points directly, forming a ramp-shaped, gradually over the abdomen, thus forming a slip shoulder condition. Refers to the parabolic curve thrown from the neck junction outward form of gentle stretching, the trend line extending diagonally out to be gentle than the more obvious over the shoulder and abdomen between, thus forming a rounded shoulders, ball belly appearance (Figure 7). Song vase from the abdomen to outline common thread shank than straight, but more north and south vase, still a little different. This part of the line north vase slightly adduction, southerly vase is slightly outside of the drum. Song vase temperament and the body of the external contour lines have a great relationship. Small mouth, short neck, narrow tibia, combined with the position of the abdomen mostly in the body of the midline on the side, giving a restrained, subtle, tall, elegant temperament.
Figure VI, Song Jizhou Kiln wishful moire vase, (Tao Yun | autumn patted goods). Photo Paragon International Auctioneers
As other porcelain, Song Dynasty vase decor are also diverse. The most common are carved flowers, tick flower decoration and glaze decoration simply by the way. Engraved with bone, bamboo or iron flat or beveled knife-like tool, not yet dry on the body lines carve patterns decorative techniques. Its characteristics are darker lines, the lines have caused width, pattern structured, after popular Five.
Figure VII, Song Hutian scratching Peony pattern vase, (Tao Yun | autumn patted goods). Photo Paragon International Auctioneers
Yue, Yaozhou, Ding, Cizhou, Jingdezhen kiln, firing a large number of carved Longquan kilns etc. products. (. Jiming Yu, Yang Yinzong ‘appreciation of ancient Chinese porcelain dictionary « Xinhua Publishing House .1992.3: 77) which Yaozhou celadon celadon carved decorative themes richest blade skill, the most prominent achievements. In Figure III, for example, kiln workers first method uses a straight blade deep in the body outline the contours of the land and the money banana leaf pattern, and then later in the contour of the outer deep, using oblique knife cut wide approach, engraved patterns go beyond extra parts, so that part of the prominent patterns, structured, clear pattern, both have a strong three-dimensional decorative effect. Money grain and banana leaf pattern lines smooth and natural, round living full, kiln workers skilled sharp knife visible in general. It is worth mentioning that, although the money for the Song of the more popular lines of a decorative paper-like, but with money-themed ornamentation pattern vase is relatively rare. In addition to the previously mentioned one Cizhou same vase with carved patterns with banana leaf pattern money themed decorative patterns (Figure 2), the Beijing Palace Museum has a golden generation Yaozhou small ewer, also decorated with carved money grain and banana leaf pattern (Figure 8). Song Qian popular can be seen as a reflection of the Song Dynasty developed commodity economy, highlighting the great wealth of meaning.
Figure VIII, Jin Yaozhou small ewer (Beijing Palace Museum)
Tick flower flower decoration techniques into left and left to tick tick to spend two kinds. Mentioned above Song Jizhou Kiln tick phoenix flower vase (Figure 5) belongs to the second. Vase in deep black glaze is applied and then released from the exposed tire double phoenix, smooth lines and easy, after firing glazing show a clear pattern, color and glaze tire stark contrast, since the tick engraved deeper, showing a bas-relief ornamentation The three-dimensional effect. It is worth mentioning that the auction another Jizhou Kiln Ruyi vase (Figure 6) used in decorative style can be described as unique in Jizhou kiln, with a black glaze over glaze iron content than the end of the whole body Draw rich symmetry Ruyi to achieve imitation lacquer tick rhino decorative effect. Ornamentation natural and smooth lines, very unique.
Porcelain Southern Song Dynasty, the South has a broader development, improvement of the southern kiln glaze recipe makes more uniform glaze rich, shiny restrained. Successfully fired kiln powder blue and plums Longquan glaze, marks the southern kilns to glaze as the main decorative style of the great achievements. In addition to the Longquan kiln, Jingdezhen blue glaze is also when the Southern Song Dynasty to the extreme, rich texture and a glass of white with green glaze is considered glaze kiln in Jingdezhen Hutian highest level. As shown in the Southern Song Dynasty vase shown Hutian four lines smooth and natural, elegant, white glaze reveals a hint of green lake almost perfect; scored without any extra decoration, has a profound aesthetics Qing Ji Song performance the head. Just as in the 1960s the rise of Western art advocated by the minimalist aesthetics, simplify or even eliminate Dingbats preconceived hint to the viewer, so that the intention of the space tends to infinity artwork. This is also in line with the « big fan if Jane » Oriental tradition Aesthetics.
Song vase contour lines simple and elegant, colorful decor, elegant Qing Ji, artistic conception, is the perfect embodiment of the Song Dynasty aesthetics; and has a profound impact on future generations of ceramic art, to the Ming Dynasty, vase has become a very popular flower, then it is to become literati furnishings furnishings is playing. Unlike the Shang and Zhou bronzes noble and mysterious, 磅礡 heavy beauty, but also from the Ming and Qing porcelain kiln in the elegant beauty of the Song Dynasty porcelain body is now the most common daily life, a cartridge, a tea cup, and even a Song bottle reflects interest on the pursuit of fine living. Port-International, November Song Dynasty vase special, will present collection the Hong Kong experienced collectors. (The author is Peking University HSBC School of Business – Expert Consultant, Hong Kong Po International Auction Co., Ltd. – Chief Executive Officer)
Hong Kong Po International 2014 autumn auction schedule. Auction: 24-27 November 2014 (Excelsior Hotel Hong Kong, 281 Gloucester Road, Causeway Bay)